The following chapter provides a comparative picture of the perspectives and framework of understanding of the hill tribes in the Godavari uplands between Bhadrachalam and Rampachodavaram. 1 The comparison is between that of the Madras Presidency government before the 1940s and the ‘proto’-nationalist government after this period. Key to understanding this difference is a grasp of the central goals of two forms of state—the existent colonial state and the national state to come—and how they differed.