Criminal Positivism and Penal Utopia In the last chapter, I argued that the perceived necessity to imagine new forms of repression preceded the science of criminals. I also suggested that, despite their intersection zones, before the First World War the science of sanctions and the science of criminals evolved on somewhat parallel tracks. I would like now to develop this latter point before turning to the ways in which the two ‘sciences’ were made to relate in view of the design of new penal institutions.