In this chapter, we discuss three major influences on the collaborative data-intensive improvement (CDI) model introduced in Chapter 1—data-driven decision making, emerging models of how researchers and education practitioners can engage in collaborative research, and the rapidly expanding fields of educational data mining and learning analytics. In discussing these major influences, we draw historical connections and highlight the ways in which research on data use in schools—and the factors contributing to increased data use—can be used to better understand the present and potential future for data-intensive research in education.