Regression, as a theoretical and clinical concept, was involved in the founding of psychoanalysis. Although I have discussed this case in Chapter 8, we need to expand our understanding because regression was used in the hypnosis in Breuer’s Case of Anna. O./Bertha Pappenheim (Breuer & Freud, 1895). She was an Austrian–Jewish feminist and the founder of the League of Jewish Women. In 1954, The West German government issued a postage stamp in honor of her contributions to the field of social work. She became a patient of Josef Breuer in November 1880, referred by a friend of the Pappenheim family. Bertha became ill, as a result of her father’s deteriorated physical condition. While attending her father as he grew weaker, she developed hallucinations and states of anxiety. Later on, she developed a variety of symptoms:

Language disorders (aphasia); sometimes, she could not speak, sometimes she spoke only English, French, or Italian. She could always understand her native language of German. The aphasia could last for days.

Paralysis and numbness in the limbs of one side of her body.

Neuralgia, facial pain treated with morphine and chloral hydrate, which led to addiction. The condition was so painful surgery was considered.

Visual impairment; she squinted and perceived objects as larger than they were.

Mood swings between anxiety and depression.

Amnesia; she could not remember when she was in a state of anxiety or depression.

Eating disorder. When in crisis, Pappenheim refused to eat. One summer she only ate fruit.244