The introduction of the National Covenant began a process that combined moral and political offences as those who dissented from the National Covenant’s reading of politics and religion were increasingly open to ecclesiastical censure. In addition to these new responsibilities, the Kirk continued to police the behavioural standards of its entire membership and the stool of repentance remained a central piece of furniture within the church space. 1 Moreover, the Kirk extended older disciplinary concerns regarding ordinary morality and pushed through a raft of new legislation aimed at curbing swearing, Sabbath breach, blasphemy, fornication and adultery. 2 However, the subscription of the National Covenant did not homogenise the differing approaches taken towards parochial discipline across Scotland. Parishes continued to fl ex and manipulate offi cial rubrics to suit prevailing pressures in the parish. The extension of disciplinary punishments into the political sphere served to increase such practices as local sessions struggled to apply contentious regulations ordered by senior authorities. The pressures of wartime, particularly in parishes with rebel troops nearby, multiplied local responses to offi cial disciplinary practice. Disciplinary variation continued under the National Covenant, much to the chagrin of senior authorities.