This chapter discusses issues related to cultural identities, cultural influences, and cross-cultural dynamics in treatment. Some of the client's cultural identities may be more prominent at the beginning of treatment, while others emerge later. In considering cultural factors and discrimination in diagnosis, be aware of the risk of minimizing the client's difficulties. Many members of cultural minority communities have had limited access to health care and other preventive services. Our views of effective treatment for distressing and disruptive emotions and behaviors are influenced by cultural experiences and beliefs. Consultation and research are especially valuable when a client's cultural background is unfamiliar to us or when we face a clinical dilemma related to cultural factors. Consultation with another experienced clinician and research regarding a particular community are resources we may need to use at times. The concerns that bring individuals, couples, and families to treatment are often related to cultural differences within couple and family relationships.