Working with animals presents a completely different set of prob­ lems. The animal’s entire experience can be controlled, and there is no scope for the kind of deviousness shown by Brown’s child subjects. The question, however, is whether anything discovered about early memory in young animals has any relevance to humans. Behaviourists certainly saw no difficulty with this (e.g. Keppel, 1964), because they believed in the evolutionary continuity between man and animal. It would certainly be a mistake to think that memory in humans and animals has nothing in common, but, equally, it is misleading to suppose that most important questions about memory development can be addressed by means of animal studies.