This chapter enable participants to recognize the importance of reproductive and sexual rights for women and their interconnection with other human rights. It identifies the obstacles to women's reproductive and sexual rights and define the role of government, community leaders, the media, and women themselves in protecting and advocating for women's reproductive and sexual rights. The chapter critically analyzes the relation between population policies and reproductive and sexual rights and discusses the issue of reproductive and sexual health education from the perspective of women's human rights. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable because of their lack of information and access to relevant services in most countries. Older women and men have distinct reproductive and sexual health issues that are often inadequately addressed. Some governments simply refused to acknowledge that adolescents engage in sexual relationships and have their own reproductive and sexual health care needs. Lack of information on sexual health can have a devastating impact on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered adolescents.