A5 far back as 1890, a New England Ie-Acher named Horace willard cogently argued that in COntrast to members of other professions, teachers lived "lives of mechanical r outine, and were subjected to :t machine of supervision, organization, classification, grading, percentages, unifo rmity, pro molions, tests, examination."· Nowhere, Willard decried, was there room in the school culture for "individuality, ideas, independence, originality, study, invesligation.',2 Forty years later, Henry W. Holmes, dean of Harvard Universi[)" s new Gradu:lte School of Education, echoed these sentiments in his criticism of the National Survey of the Education of Teachers in 1930. According to Holmes, the survey failed to suppon teachers as independent cri tical thinkers. Instead, it endorsed a view of the teacher that George CountS termed a "routine worker under me expen direction of principals, supervisors, and superimende ntS. ,>3 Holmes was convinced that if teachers' work cominued to be defined in such a narrow fashion, schools o f education would evemually respond by limiting themselves to forms of training mat vinually undermined me developmem of teachers as critically minded intellectuals.