Rwanda 1994 was a contemporary genocide of dramatic propor-tions. Thousands were hacked to death with machetes while they huddled in churches seeking refuge. The world only watched as this slaughter unfolded. Debates in the UN Security Council were full of the right words, but none of the right actions. Afterwards we reﬂected in agony. But in spite of prior knowledge of what was to happen, there was deathly inaction before and throughout the months of carnage. People in senior policy positions claimed they did not know what to do.