The Egyptian communities of the period under review were no

less intellectually creative than many other Jewish centers of the

time; however, their overall literary output is not particularly im­

pressive. This may be due to the constant migration of Jews to

larger towns, which prevented any type of continuity within each

community, while new arrivals made cultural continuity even more improbable. Furthermore, the many tongues spoken by Egyptian

Jewry did not encourage a large circulation for books or periodicals

in any one language. Under these conditions, local culture-both Arabic and Islamic-had little impact on Jewish culture. In the

nineteenth century it either fell under west-European influence or age-long orthodox traditions.