The Arab Republic of Egypt is one of the best documented countries in the Arab world, and perhaps one of the least understood. With a highly distinctive geo­ graphical personality, the country’s complex social, economic and political problems have been the subject of much oversimplification, often resulting in great concern about the future. The aim of this chapter is to give some perspective to one of the most geographical aspects of Egypt’s development problems - the expansion of agricultural production, seen against the background of rapid population growth, a vacillating economy and an increasingly uncertain political relationship with its neighbours.