Chapter 5 focuses on health inequalities for older adults from diverse backgrounds. We define health inequality and present a conceptual model to examine how SES, gender, and race/ethnicity affect health. We review theories to show how health inequality affects people in old age. We present a case analysis of how elements of diversity affect many aspects of dementia. We discuss research findings examining how socioeconomic status, gender, race/ethnicity, rural-urban community location, and sexual orientation are related to health inequalities. We also examine how the intersections of the elements of diversity yield more nuanced health inequalities than those found when looking at race/ethnicity, sex, or SES alone. Comparing mortality rates by gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity gives additional insight into the state of health inequalities but looking at the intersections of these elements of diversity can help determine causes for these inequalities.