Chapter 2 focuses on how we study aging in people from different groups. We describe the disciplines that study aging and diversity, and we argue it is important to consider how the traditional research process must be changed to conduct meaningful research with people from diverse groups. One example of a non-traditional research process is Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR). CBPR develops partnerships between researchers and communities to conduct research that is relevant and meaningful to both groups. We also describe two primary theories, cumulative disadvantage theory and intersectionality, in addition to health-related conceptual models to explain how elements of diversity might affect health and aging. Mixed method studies using qualitative and quantitative methods is another approach to conducting research with underrepresented groups. Including voices of elders from diverse groups in research enriches our understanding of aging.