China has one of the oldest civilizations in the world, with a history written by many diverse ethnic groups. Non-Han people have made a great contribution to the development of Chinese martial arts with the infusion of their characteristic martial arts. The most notable influences came from the Khitan, Jurchen, Tangut, and Mongolian peoples, who established the Liao (916–1125), Jin (1115–1234), Western Xia (1038–1227) and Yuan (1206–1368) dynasties, coinciding with the Song dynasty of the Han people. This chapter gives a brief introduction of their martial arts.