References to ‘culture’ and ‘context’ have become increasingly common in research into learning and cognitive development, but the concepts are hardly ever explicitly discussed or defined in relation to that field of research. My aim in this chapter is to encourage a more open discussion of their meaning and relevance. The chapter has two main parts. First, I offer some definitions of ‘culture’ and ‘context’ and discuss the relevance of these concepts for research into learning (and especially learning in school). I then use some observational data on teaching and learning to illustrate and elaborate that discussion, and in doing so identify what I believe are important features of situated learning.