For America and much of the rest of the world, the election of George W. Bush as 43rd President of the United States politically rang in the new decade. The chaotic course of the November 2000 election mean that the Bush team had substantially less time than previous administrations to transition into office. The administration at first focused its foreign policy attention on Russia and China, 1 on determining whether a Middle East peace settlement was on the cards, and on building a ballistic missile defense system. 2 Antagonists like Iraq were also discussed, not least because Saddam Hussein continued to be a nuisance (vast amounts of military resources were tied up enforcing the two no-fly zones as well as the sanctions program). It is not without a degree of irony that Bush’s initial foreign and national security policy until September 11, 2001 bore little resemblance to the policies that followed the terrorist strikes. In fact, Bush was more domestically focused, even nationalist, than his predecessor. Much like all presidents, he was relatively cautious on the international scene.