This chapter sketches the key transformations of the Western European radical left since 1989, from a short initial phase of identity crisis and material collapse to a long subsequent period of uneven renewal and recovery. What progressively emerged after 1994 was a ‘new’ radical left, where each party tried to chart its way between the contradictions of the anti-neoliberal field of forces described in chapter one: anti-neoliberal coherence and centre-left unity, anti-neoliberalism and anti-capitalism, and old traditions and new realities.