In his report at the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, held in the middle of 1948, Edvard Kardelj presented the generally accepted thesis that the basic form of organization of the peasantry on the road to socialist transformation of agri­ culture is the farming cooperative and cited three reasons: (l)the cooperative is an organization familiar to the peasant; (2) it is a flexible form of organization that can comprise all activities in the sphere of agriculture; and (3) it is built on the principles of internal democracy and hence represents for the peasant a guar­ antee that the progress of agriculture will not proceed in ways that are unacceptable to him. Kardelj stated that the work co­ operatives, trwhich by their form and content approach the type of the Soviet kolkhozes," already were playing an important role. But, because of the backwardness of the village, they could not represent a general movement of the peasants. Consequently, concluded Kardelj, citing Lenin and Stalin, the lower forms of the farming cooperative remained the principal ones [14, p. 385].