American higher education is a complex mix of public and private institutions. While most of the private institutions have religious foundations, there are also a substantial number that are nondenominational, as well as an increasing number that are proprietary, that is, for profit. Virtually all of these institutions receive large portions of their budgets from public resources, whether from state or federal student aid, subsidized student loans or direct government grants. Those that are for-profit distribute portions of their profits to shareholders.