The narrow opportunities available to composers in Australia led many to pursue studies and careers outside Australia. Of these, Percy Grainger was, by far, the best-known Australian-born composer. He receives little space in this study because he chose not to compose in symphonic forms. Other early, prominent expatriate Australians included Ernest Hutcheson (1871-1951), best known for his role as a pianist and music educator in the United States, and George Boyle (1886-1948), a pioneering teacher at the Peabody Conservatory. Like Hill, these men were Leipzig-trained. Hutcheson composed at least one symphony, probably in America where he lived from 1900 onwards.1