Following the survey, in Chapters 1–6, of short-haul airline services around the world, this chapter takes a close-up look at the processes of airline competition in a single country, Australia. Being much the same size and shape as the 48 contiguous states of the USA, Australia has non-stop domestic jet flight sectors of up to five hours in flying time. While having a population approaching 25 million persons, Australia has very little long-distance travel by rail. Outside the major cities, there are very few roads of motorway/inter-state highway standard. (Even so, leisure travellers sometimes take long road journeys for the en-route experience.) Thus, for most journeys outside the metropolitan areas, air travel takes on particular importance.