The mutual constructions of race and criminal justice are about our past, present and future. The previous two chapters have demonstrated how localized constructions of racialized identity contribute to the formation, transformation and operation of criminal justice systems. They show how location-specific, historical and contemporary constructs of Aboriginal and Māori offenders entered Victoria and New Zealand’s criminal justice systems, transforming their spaces, functions and operations. The present chapter changes the orientation of this book and explores the way that penal logics and technologies contribute to the construction of racialized identity.