The two preceding chapters have shown that much of the criticism of pluralism and of behavioralism, to which it is linked in practice, has important epistemological dimensions. These were given more and more attention in the course of the 1960s. In these often heated and somewhat confused discussions on the presumed epistemological shortcomings of pluralism and behavioralism, a wide range of fundamental questions were raised and widely divergent standpoints were taken. A leitmotif in these discussions was a rallying call for the rehabilitation of politics within the political sciences. In the following, I shall first introduce the various questions and standpoints and then go more deeply into the core issues.