By the onset of World War I, the prolonged transformation of naval warfare had

culminated with the ascendance of the Battle Fleet. From the mid-nineteenth century

onward, the mighty navies of the world gradually but deliberately harnessed the

technological fruits of the Industrial Revolution to produce a new class of battleship

and to re-organize naval command and control in service of a new mission of long-

range combat at sea. The protracted fusion of new types of big-gun cruisers with

evolving changes in strategy, tactics, education, and training brought about the first

true revolution in naval warfare since the arrival of the line-of-battle ship in the

seventeenth century.1 But by the end of the war, the seeds of another revolution at

sea began to germinate.