Two different aspects of the term ‘culture’ have triggered specific research efforts
in the past and are still of major importance today (e.g. Dülfer 1992; Martin 1995;
The first aspect is represented by the different national cultures (e.g. the extensive work of House et al. 1999, 2004, see also Chapter 4). This approach has been the focus of a wide variety of interests, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view (e.g. Keller 1995; Redding 1995). The second major aspect can be subsumed
under the term organizational cultures (e.g. Schein 1992, see also Chapter 4), which has also gained remarkable popularity among scholars and practitioners (Martin
1995; Schreyögg 1992).