One of the most equivocal aspects of the Bellum Civile is Caesar’s complex relationship with the republic. Here I examine how he portrays this connection in dierent ways in BC I. Drexler’s extensive study shows clearly that the actual meaning of res publica in Latin literature varies considerably and admits several interpretations beyond simply ‘the state’.1 Drexler claims that the essence of the res publica in Roman thought is an ‘idea’ for which one lives or dies.2 MorsteinMarx adds the people’s inuence in determining this essence as well.3 us the res publica as a concept is ambiguous. It could refer simply to the great Roman state, the Roman way of life, the embodiment of Roman virtus, the relationship between the people and its representatives.