The preceding sections have shown the opportunities for innovation in professional service firms and how firms can establish effective and sustainable approaches to innovation. However, an identified opportunity is not a realised benefit. And typically there are significant challenges to be faced by change leaders in professional service firms in seeking to realise the benefits offered by innovation in their firms. So in this final section of the book I will explore the common challenges that professional service change leaders face when seeking to improve their innovation capabilities – and recommend approaches for addressing them.