It is clear, that against this definition, many of the processes operating within professional service firms are not effective. All organisations utilise a number of business processes to produce outputs for their customers. In many organisations, processes will have developed (rather than having been designed) in an ad hoc fashion over many years and become established by practice. They will not necessarily represent the optimum way to achieve the required outputs and so cost more and provide a poorer end result than the optimum process. In professional service firms the concept of a ‘business process’ is much less familiar than in an industrial organisation.