Briey outlined here are the main foodstus consumed by the Byzantines as attested in the written sources. Oil, wine and wheat formed the basic elements of the Byzantine diet – what Braudel calls the ‘essential trinity’ of Mediterranean crops.7 e grains in primary use appear to have been wheat and barley, especially wheat.8 Another medieval grain crop was millet, whose importance seems to have varied by region and economic status.9 Other grains traditionally grown or used include oats, rye and rice.10 Various legumes, such as broad beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils, vetch and lupins, were also consumed.11