The first translations of the Pāli Vinaya were completed by Herman Oldenberg (partial) and first completed by Hermann Oldenberg, T. W. Rhys Davids and Miss I. B. Horner. 1 In later years, some scholars considered the work of these translators to be flawed for a number of reasons. Firstly, in the case of Miss Horner’s translations, she omitted some passages on sexual matters because she considered them to be ‘coarse’. 2 Secondly, these early translators did not appreciate the importance of ritual 3 and did not incorporate the insights from inscriptional evidence (Schopen 1997b). Thirdly, these scholars were not in a position to reflect on modern legal ideas about the role of rules and, so, they tended to consider the Vinaya be to a narrow series of prohibitions and duties. 4 A modern interpretation might suggest that rules serve a variety of functions (Twining 2009; Twining and Miers 1976). There are however, understandable reasons for these deficiencies, and my comments are not meant to diminish the pioneering contributions of the early translators of the Vinaya.