Food can cause risks throughout the whole food chain, from production to consumption, including the formation of harmful chemicals during food preparation in the kitchen, which is the focus of this chapter. Except for specific food groups, preparation of food for consumption is most likely to involve forms of heating: grilling, roasting, frying, boiling, baking, toasting or heating by microwave ovens. Heating improves the palatability of food, changes its physical structure and reduces the microbial load. Some heat-induced reactions can be beneficial, like the breakdown of a natural legume toxin known as phytohaemagglutinin, while others can produce hazardous chemical compounds detrimental to health. The latter substances are commonly called process-induced contaminants, and they include carcinogens, genotoxins, neurotoxins and anti-nutrients. The preferred taste conflicts with health warnings, and this causes culinary risk dilemmas, as there is a direct correlation between the intensity of the chemical reactions that enhance taste and the amount of toxic compounds formed in the heated food.