The previous chapter presented the main outcomes of the EU Emissions Trading
Scheme in the phases of policy initiation, decision-making and implementation.
In this chapter we narrow in on the policy initiation phase, from the 1997 Kyoto
Protocol to the publication of, and responses to, the Green Paper in 2000. Our
main question here concerns how and why the idea of an EU ETS was initiated and
developed within the EU, given its initial scepticism to including emission trading in
the Kyoto Protocol. Why did the EU initiate internal emissions trading shortly after
it had opposed emissions trading internationally?