The communication aspect of negotiations involves the exchange of information and offers in ways that convey the intentions of the participants. Communication always involves a sender, a receiver, and a medium through which information is exchanged. It is an open system in the sense that everybody involved is affected by the environment which interferes with the exchange process and imposes some sort of “noise” leading to disturbances in the messages. We have seen a special type of noise in previous chapters, the “cultural noise.”