The fi rst three parts of this book contain a lot of information and ideas. Even if you are already familiar with my earlier research for The Future of Pharma and therefore chose to skip Part 1 , I have ranged over concepts and information from economics, strategic management theory and a various scientifi c and technical disciplines. Such is the knowledge base needed to understand the evolution of the life science industry. But I am very aware that busy people read books like this differently from academics or compared with how they might read a novel. I know that many of you will have skipped or skimmed some of the preceding pages; others will have had enforced gaps between reading sessions whilst you have attended to work or family life. For a few readers, these words are the fi rst you have read in this whole book. For all those reasons, I think it is worth beginning this fourth and fi nal section of Darwin’s Medicine with the briefest of restatements of what I have described so far. If you don’t feel you need that, please feel free to skip to the end of this introduction and continue reading at Chapter 23.