Often equal opportunities and diversity policies, created to guard against discrimination and harassment on the grounds of one or more of age, colour, creed, criminal record, disability, gender, sexual orientation, race or religion also can encompass WORKPLACE BULLYING !LTHOUGHWORKPLACE BULLYING APPEARS TO FUNCTION IN THE ABSENCE OFTHESESPECIlCELEMENTSITISSOMETIMESREGARDEDASAFORMOFINTERPERSONALORINTRA ORGANIZATIONALCONmICTOROPPRESSIONOFEMPLOYEESBYMANAGEMENTHAVING THE SAME negative effects as status-based discrimination and harassment.