One of the iconic images of Syracuse in the fi ft h century BC is the portrayal on the obverse of a decadrachm, called the ‘damareteion’ aft er Gelon’s wife, of the nymph Arethusa, who was a personifi cation of the goddess Artemis. Th e pictorial reference on the coin is one to the Spring of Arethusa on the Island and the myth associated with this natural phenomenon.1 Th e reverse has an equestrian scene consisting of a chariot whose driver or rather the combination of driver and horses is crowned by a fl ying Nike, while a lion occupies the space in the exergue. Th e reverse is commonly held to be a portrayal of Gelon’s victory in the games at Olympia sometime during his rule (485-478 BC) and hence an indication of Deinomenid propaganda on the coinage. Th e portrayal of Arethusa, who here is possibly shown emerging from the spring surrounded by the dolphins of Apollo, became the regular obverse on the silver during the Classical Period, although this particular issue has an obviously archaic bust. Th e later issues, especially those belonging to the rule of Dionysius I, portray a bust of the nymph that achieved a highly artistic level of excellence.