Camarina was founded initially by the Syracusans … but the citizens of Camarina were expelled by the Syracusans, who waged war against them for rebelling. Later on, Hippocrates, ruler of Gela, acquired this land in exchange for returning some Syracusan prisoners and re-established Camarina with himself as founder. Th e citizens were again expelled by Gelon and the city was founded a third time by the Geloans. (Th ucydides, 6.5.3)

Hieron (476 BC) removed the people of Naxos and Catane from their cities and despatched other settlers having collected 5,000 from the Peloponnese and added to these others from Syracuse. He changed the name of Catane to Aetna, and not only the territory of Catane but also much besides he divided up among 10,000 new citizens. (Diodorus, 11.49.1)

Catane is a foundation of the citizens of Naxos … Catane lost its original citizens, others being sent as citizens by Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, and naming it Aetna instead of Catane. (Strabo 6.2.3)

Of the remaining sides of Sicily, the coast lying between Cape Pachynus and Lilybaeum has been left utterly deserted, but some trace has been preserved of ancient settlements, among which was Camarina, a foundation of Syracuse. (Strabo, 6.2.5)

The End of the Tyranny

(466 BC) Aft er the death of Hieron, Th rasybulus, having taken the rule of Syracuse, outdid his brother in misdeeds. For since he was violent and bloodthirsty he murdered many of the citizens and exiled as many on trumped-up charges, confi scating their property for his treasury. He hired many mercenaries and organised forces in opposition to those of the citizen body. Th rasybulus, seeing the entire city under arms against him, fi rstly attempted to put a stop to the rebellion by negotiation. However, when he recognised that this revolt was unstoppable, he called up the citizens settled by Hieron at Catane, many other allies and large numbers of mercenaries so that altogether he had almost 15,000 armed men. Th en he occupied Achradina, as it is known, and the Island, which was fortifi ed, and from here he began to make war on the citizens who had risen in revolt. (Diodorus, 11.67.5-8)

At fi rst the Syracusans took a part of the city named Tyche and making this their base they sent envoys to Gela, Acragas and Selinous, as well as to Himera and the cities of the Sicels situated in the middle of the island requesting aid … As a result, the Syracusans put their ships in readiness and drew up their army and showed that they were ready and determined both on land and on the sea. Th rasybulus, abandoned by his allies and his hopes based now only on his mercenaries, was in control of just Achradina and the Island, while the Syracusans held the rest of the city. (Diodorus, 11.68.1-3)

Aft er they had liberated their city, the Syracusans allowed the mercenaries to leave Syracuse; and aft er they had freed the other cities from tyrants or from the presence of their guards, they re-established democracies in these cities. From this time, the city had enjoyed peace and increased very much in prosperity and maintained the democracy for nearly 60 years until the tyranny of Dionysius. (Diodorus, 11.68.6)

(463 BC) Th roughout Sicily, as soon as the tyranny at Syracuse had been driven out, all the cities across the island had been liberated, the whole of Sicily increased very much in prosperity. For the Sicilians had peace and the land they farmed was good …. (Diodorus, 11.72.1)

Aft er they had driven out the tyranny of Th rasybulus, they gathered in an assembly and discussed the establishment of their own democracy; they all agreed in a vote to construct a huge statue dedicated to Zeus the Liberator and to off er sacrifi ces each year in an ‘Eleutheria’ and to hold excellent ‘Liberation Games’ on the same day on which they had liberated their state aft er driving out the tyrant. (Diodorus, 11.72.2)

Th ey assigned all the public offi ces to the original citizens; they did not think that the foreigners made citizens by Gelon were worthy to hold this honour – either they considered them not worthy or they distrusted them in case, having lived under a tyranny and having served under his rule, they might be inclined to take power themselves should the opportunity arise. For more than 10,000 foreign mercenaries had been made citizens by Gelon, and of those more than 7,000 remained at this particular time. (Diodorus, 11.72.3)

Th ose debarred from the honour of the public offi ces bore the snub angrily and simultaneously rebelled against the Syracusans. Th ey took control of Achradina and the Island in the city, both of which were fortifi ed with well-constructed defences. Th e Syracusans … held the rest of the city; and that part facing towards Epipolai they blockaded and made themselves very secure, and at once they easily shut off their opponents from an exit to the countryside and quickly made them short of supplies. (Diodorus, 11.73.1-2)

(461 BC) In Sicily, the Syracusans, in their war against the mercenaries who had rebelled, made assaults on Achradina and the Island and were victorious in a sea battle, but on land they could not drive them from the city on account of the strength of the places they held. (Diodorus, 11.76.1)

At the same time, Ducetius, a leading fi gure of the Sicels, having a particular issue with the citizens of Catane over a land dispute, launched an attack on them. Similarly, the Syracusans had made an attack on Catane, and so these two joined forces and allotted the land among them and campaigned against the citizens who had been sent there by Hieron. Th ose in Catane opposed them but came off worse in several engagements; the allies drove them out of the city and they went instead to what is now Aetna, which was then known as Inessa, and those who had originally lived in Catane returned to their city aft er a long time. (Diodorus, 11.76.3)

Aft er these things had happened, the Geloans, who were the original citizens of Camarina, divided up the land among themselves. Nearly all the cities were eager to terminate the wars and came to a general agreement to make peace with the foreigners among the communities and to receive back exiles and return the cities to their original citizens. However, they gave permission to the mercenaries, who possessed cities belonging to others on account of the previous rulers, to go away and for them all to settle in Messenia. (Diodorus, 11.76.5)