Between 675 and 660 Foundations of Leontini, Catane and Megara Hyblaea

610-600 Approximate date of the temple of Apollo on the Island

590 Approximate date of the Olympieion at Polichne 550 (approx.) Achradina became a part of the city 500/495 Murder of Cleander at Gela 500 Start of the construction of the temple of

Artemis on the Island

490s Camarina destroyed by Syracuse and civil unrest in Syracuse

493 Hippocrates at Zancle 492/1 Hippocrates defeated the Syracusans near Elorus

and besieged the city 492/1 Death of Hippocrates and succession of Gelon 491-85 Gelon ruler in Gela 490/85 Camarina destroyed 488 Gelon’s horse won at the Olympic Games 485 Gelon invited to become ruler of Syracuse 485/80 Megara Hyblaea and Sicilian Euboea destroyed 480s Camarina destroyed a second time 482 Hieron’s horse won at the Pythian Games 480 Carthaginian army at Panormus and Himera

480 Battle of Himera in the course of summer 480 between July and September; Hamilcar killed in the battle

480 Construction began on the temple of Athena on the Island

478 Death of Gelon ( January-March) 478 Hieron succeeded his brother Gelon as ruler of

Syracuse (Diod. 11.38.3) 478 Hieron’s horse won at the Delphic Games 476 New settlers in Naxos; Naxians and Catanaeans

removed to Leontini 476/4 Catane renamed Aetna and repopulated by

Hieron (Diod. 11.49.1-2) 476 Hieron’s horse won at the Olympic Games 474 Hieron’s defeat of the Etruscans at Cumae; a

Syracusan garrison on Ischia 474 Re-foundation of Catane 472 Hieron’s horse won at Olympia 472 Hieron victor over Th rasydaeus, tyrant of

Acragas (Diod. 11.53.4) 472 Aeschylus’ Persae produced in Athens and later in

Syracuse 470s Pindar and Simonides in Syracuse 468 Hieron’s chariot won at Olympia 467 Death of Hieron (September-November)

(Diod. 11.66) 466 Expulsion of Th rasybulus (September-

November) to Locri 463 Coalition of Ducetius’ Sicels and Syracusans

attacked Catane 461/60 Withdrawal of mercenaries from Syracuse 461/60 Syracusans allied with Ducetius attacked Catane

(Aetna) 460 A democracy established in Syracuse 460 Citizens of Catane returned to their homes; the

mercenaries of Hieron re-founded Aetna at Inessa 460-58 War with Ducetius 459 Menaenum founded by Ducetius, who also

sacked Morgantina

458 Oresteia produced in Athens 456 Death of Aeschylus at Gela 455/4 War between Segesta and Lilybaeum 454 Attempted coup of Tyndarides at Syracuse; stasis

in the city (Diod. 11.85.3) 454/3 Petalism introduced at Syracuse 453/2 Syracusan warships in operations against the

Etruscans 453/2 Ducetius extended his control of the interior of

Sicily 450? Petalism repealed 450 Ducetius defeated near Motyum and exiled to

Corinth 446 Ducetius led settlers to the north coast of Sicily 446 Battle at Himera River between Syracuse and

Acragas 442 Widespread peace in Sicily (Diod. 12.26.3) 440 Death of Ducetius and destruction of Trinacria

(Palicē) 439 Diodorus claims that Syracusans invested heavily

in new warships and increased the size of their army

435 War between Corinth and Corcyra, but Syracuse apparently neutral

427 Athenians sent 20 warships to Sicily and based at Rhegium Athenian attack on Lipara Death of Charoeades in a sea battle with Syracusan near Megara Hyblaea

426 Athenian success at Mylae and submission of Messene Athenians attacked Inessa and Locri

426/5 Syracusans built warships 425 Syracusan fl eet of 10 ships arrived in Messene 424 Congress at Gela and speech of Hermocrates 424 Antiochus completed his history; Herodotus

died, perhaps at Th urii 423/2 Renewal of disputes between Leontini and


422 Phaeax on a fact-fi nding visit to Magna Graecia and Sicily

415 (May) Envoys from Leontini and Segesta in Athens ( June) Despatch of Athenian fl eet and army to Sicily ( July) Speeches of Hermocrates and Athenagoras at Syracuse (Aug.) Athenians at Rhegium (Sept.) Athenians captured Hyccara (Oct.) Athenians landed at Dascon and defeated the Syracusan army (Nov./Dec.) Meeting of Sicilian Greeks and the Athenians at Camarina

414 (May) Athenian landing at Leon and assault on Epipolai (Nov.) Letter of Nicias to the Athenian demos (21 Dec.) Despatch of Eurymedon to Syracuse

413 (Aug.) Demosthenes arrived in Sicily with the relief fl eet; death of Eurymedon (8 Sept.) Lunar eclipse and delay of the Athenians (Sept.) Final battle in the Great Harbour (Oct.) Destruction of the Athenian expedition; murder of Nicias and Demosthenes; Athenian prisoners held in the stone quarries

412 Hermocrates in the Peloponnese and in Asia Minor, relieved of his command aft er the defeat at Cyzicus

412/11 Constitutional reforms of Diocles

409 Sack of Selinous and Himera by the Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal son of Hamilcar

409/8 Birth of Dion 408 Hermocrates active in western Sicily 408 Exile of Diocles and death of Hermocrates 407 Diplomatic contacts between Syracuse and

Carthage 406 Carthaginian invasion of Sicily and sack of

Acragas 405 Carthaginian attack on Gela and treaty with

Syracuse; Dionysius elected strategos autocrator

398 Marriage of Dionysius to Doris of Locri and Aristomache of Syracuse

397 Dionysius attacked and sacked Motya 396 Siege of Syracuse by the Carthaginians led by

Himilcon 396 Unsuccessful Carthaginian siege of Syracuse 395 (approx.) Birth of the younger Dionysius 394/3 Sophrosyne born 390 (?) Philoxenus imprisoned in Syracuse 388 Plato’s fi rst visit to Syracuse 386/4 Exile of Philistus (recalled 366?) to Th urii/

Adria/Epirus 375 Apollocrates, son of Dionysius II, born 373 Birth of Hipparinus, son of Dion (Plato, Ep.