This book has dealt with the development of the European aviation network and its impact on airport planning. The starting point of the study was the notion that deregulation of air transport markets may have severe implications for the way airlines conﬁgure their networks in space and time. The adoption of spatially and temporally concentrated hub-and-spoke networks is certainly one of the most striking impacts of deregulation as is the rise of low-cost, no-frills carrier networks. In turn, changing airline network behaviour has consequences for airport connectivity as well as the way airports are planned and developed. How have airline networks in Europe developed after deregulation and what are the consequences for airport planning?