Aircraft noise is acknowledged to be one of the most significant local environmental impacts associated with the operation of airports (DfT 2002; 2003b; 2007; FAA 2005; Hume and Watson 2003; Hume et al. 2003; Kryter 1967; May and Hill 2006; Nero and Black 2000; Pattarini 1967; Skogö 2001; Thomas and Lever 2003). The nuisance caused to individuals by aircraft noise is an important issue affecting communities in the vicinity of airports and their flight paths. Given that major airports are often located within, or in close proximity to, urban areas, aircraft noise affects large numbers of people including many who do not benefit directly from the provision of air transport services (Hume and Watson 2003). It has long been recognised that the issue of aircraft noise nuisance is not straightforward but involves the complex interaction of many factors, including a range of physical, physiological, psychological and sociological processes (Schultz 1978). Yet despite the complexity of the issue, aircraft noise represents a common, significant source of annoyance that can affect many aspects of people’s lives: by interrupting communication and leisure activities, by disrupting activities requiring concentration and by discouraging people from using outdoor spaces. Aircraft noise is also responsible for disturbing many people’s sleep. Furthermore, the experience of aircraft noise may exacerbate conditions of stress, anxiety and ill-health for many people, especially those within more vulnerable social groups, such as children, elderly people and individuals with pre-existing illnesses. As a result of those wide-ranging effects, the impact of aircraft noise can severely reduce the wellbeing of individuals, especially in the vicinity of major airports and their flight paths (Hume and Watson 2003).