Interest in liberalism as a historical, cultural and ideological phenomenon has certainly increased in recent decades. Although there has always been a widespread interest in liberalism, the focus has been on national politics and particularly on constitutional issues. In recent years, however, in the context of the new school of historiography, cultural history has exercised a new fascination. 1 For example, debates about the relationships between religion and state, or men and women, take on a different meaning when we realize the full complexity of the relationship between liberalism and religion or gender. 2 4Accordingly, there is a real need for some fresh ideas concerning liberalism as a mass movement.