82Engineering activities can have a significant impact on the environment. However, in the past half century, new laws have been introduced to minimize this impact, consequently making the world a safer, cleaner place. As a result, it has become increasingly important for engineers to understand how, and why, environmental legislation impacts on normal day-to-day engineering activities. We begin this chapter by looking at the key legislation and explaining what it aims to do before moving on to look at ways in which responsible engineering companies deal with waste and unwanted emissions. The Activities introduced in this chapter will bring into sharp focus crucial issues such as the effects of climate change, alternative ‘green’ energy sources, and how to deal with the accidental release of a polluting substance.