By the mid-1980s, the Indians were aware that Pakistan was on the verge of a nuclear weapons capability. For New Delhi, the challenge was formidable, and the options for dealing with it unappealing. The easiest choice was to do nothing: India would yield its nuclear monopoly in South Asia and surrender whatever vague prospects it had for dominating Pakistan. Alternatively, India could preempt by invading Pakistan with overwhelming conventional military power and disarm its enemy by force. The risks of an escalation to nuclear war depended, of course, on Pakistan’s real capabilities. Did they possess the bomb or not? If they did, how would they deliver it to an Indian target: strike ﬁghters or missiles? India could also strike the Kahuta Uranium Enrichment facility with aircraft in order to slow down the Pakistani effort, but the risk was similar Pakistani retaliation against Indian targets.