The ‘Issues for discussion’ section in the previous chapter referred to the emergence of the ‘outcomes-based education’ movement in Australia, the USA and the UK, the ‘target-oriented’ curriculum in Hong Kong and the ‘desired curriculum outcomes’ movement in Singapore. The term that is most generally used to capture such developments is the first of those just mentioned, namely, ‘outcomes-based education’. This chapter describes the background to the term. It then goes on to outline the major advantages and disadvantages of this approach to curriculum planning as outlined in the academic literature.