There is little doubt that, since the end of the 1970s, judicial reconstruction and reform in China have achieved impressive progress. As the caseloads have grown from 1,168,715 in 1980, to 3,211,758 in 1990, 5,918,411 in 2000, and 11,712,349 in 2010,1 courts in China have managed to deal with this ‘litigation explosion’ in a relatively functional manner. However, it is also indisputable that the existing judicial system is fraught with various challenges and problems. In accordance with notable transitions in Chinese society, the judicial system is also in a state of Àuctuation. Some typical Chinese characteristics of the current judicial system can be drawn upon in order to facilitate a better understanding of how the system has transformed and what the challenges to further enhancement are that lay ahead.