The main focus of this brief history is on the management of business organizations operating for profit in freely competitive markets. Such business organizations are important because it is from the fruits of their operations, either directly or indirectly, that a nation pays for its health, education, defence and social services as well as its government. And their management is important because it, or they, largely determine the effectiveness of business operations, usually measured in terms of taxable profitability and growth, and therefore the potential generosity of the national services referred to, which are some measure of the degree to which a society might be regarded as civilized.