Personal contact between man and man, whether equal or superior, is either lost entirely or reduced to rest pauses, explanation of instruction sheets, or leisure hours. The goods turned out are typically standardized and uniform, and bear few if any marks of craftsmenlike skill. Workmanlike pride in the job as such is largely gone. Often the operative knows nothing of the other processes which go to make the finished product, and little concerning the source of the materials or the destination of the finished goods. Typically he has even less of a hand in control over any phase of the functioning complex which he serves. Under highly standardized production methods, he tends to become as readily displaceable as any other component part. Training, even up through some of the more skilled and directing staff, tends to be short, formal, schematized, and standard. Any individual is easily displaced; factors of personality have relatively little to do with performance, given willingness to work and the necessary adeptness . . .