This article discusses two aspects of the nature of translation and, on the basis of that discussion, considers the nature of the Scots and Welsh languages. The first aspect is the nature of the process in which myth, specifically Greek myth, may be translated into an­ other culture. The authors argue that the process usually called ‘adaptation ’ is actually one of translation of a significant mythic structure from the premises of one cultural frame to another in a way analogous to the translation of text from one language to an­ other. The example addressed is a version of Antigone written in Scots by Brown and translated into Welsh by Sherlock, the article’s authors. The second aspect discussed is the ways in which the lan­ guages under consideration are capable of dealing with the material of the Antigone play.