In Chapter 1, we introduced the concept of meaningful learning. One necessary (but not sufficient) component of implementing meaningful online learning (hereafter, MOL) is technology. This chapter presents the concept of pedagogical ecology as applied to learning technologies. Pedagogical ecology refers to an integrative approach for understanding teaching and learning environments as a complex system comprising multiple components and processes that influence the development of pedagogies through the lens of the theory of affordances (Mioduser, 2015). The chapter describes the pedagogical ecology of pre-Internet technologies, Web 1.0 technologies, and Web 2.0 technologies, and presents the Three-Component Pedagogical Model for Online Learning that is premised on the concept of pedagogical ecology. The chapter also introduces the Meaningful Online Learning Design Framework that aligns 17the Three-Component Pedagogical Model for Online Learning with the five characteristics of meaningful learning.